Philosophical aspects of Ayurveda, focusing on the oldest surviving medical treatise, the Caraka-Samhita.
The oldest treatise of Sāṃkhya enumerates the principles of the cosmos and of the human mind.
The grammarian Bhartṛhari argues that the study of language is the path to liberation, because the undivided reality underlying language is brahman.
Śaṅkara and his “non-dual” (Advaita) Vedānta, which teaches that only brahman is real, and the world of experience and individual self are mere illusion.
The Mīmāṃsā school put their faith in sense experience, and argue that the Veda, and hence language itself, had no beginning.
In the Mīmāṃsā school’s founding text, Jaimini systematizes Vedic ritual and explores its theoretical basis.