Nyāya philosophers explain how perception can bring us knowledge.
The Nyāya-Sūtra inaugurates a tradition of logical and epistemological analysis.
Yoga as presented by Patañjali offers a practical complement to the Sāṃkhya theory of the cosmos and the self.
Philosophical aspects of Ayurveda, focusing on the oldest surviving medical treatise, the Caraka-Samhita.
The oldest treatise of Sāṃkhya enumerates the principles of the cosmos and of the human mind.
The grammarian Bhartṛhari argues that the study of language is the path to liberation, because the undivided reality underlying language is brahman.
Śaṅkara and his “non-dual” (Advaita) Vedānta, which teaches that only brahman is real, and the world of experience and individual self are mere illusion.